Why should I choose AnalystNotes?

AnalystNotes specializes in helping candidates pass. Period.

Subject 2. Bond Indenture PDF Download

An indenture is the contract between the issuer and the bondholder specifying the issuer's legal requirements. It contains the promises of the issuer and the rights of the holder of the bond.

Bondholders may have great difficulty in ascertaining whether the issuer has been fulfilling its obligations specified in the indenture. The indenture is thus made out to a third-party trustee as a representative of the interests of the bondholders; a trustee acts in a fiduciary capacity for bondholders.

Legal Identity of the Bond Issuer and its Legal Form

The issuer is identified in the indenture by its legal name. It is obligated to make timely payments of interest and repayment of principal. Bonds can be issued by a subsidiary of a parent legal entity. They can also be issued by a holding company. A special-purpose vehicle/entity (a separate legal entity) can issue bonds collateralized by assets transferred from its sponsor. If bankruptcy occurs, the sponsor's creditors cannot go after such assets; this is known as bankruptcy remote.

Source of Repayment Proceeds

The source of repayment proceeds varies, depending on the type of bond.

  • Supranational bonds: repayment of previously loans, or the paid-in capital from members
  • Sovereign bonds: taxing authority and money creation
  • Non-sovereign government bonds: general taxing authority of the issuer, project cash flows, and special taxes
  • Corporate bonds: the issuer's operating cash flows
  • Securitized bonds: cash flows from the underlying financial assets

Asset or Collateral Backing

Collateral backing can increase a bond issuer's credit quality.

  • Seniority ranking affect credit. In general, secured debt takes priority over unsecured debt if the issuer goes bankrupt. Within unsecured debt, senior debt ranks ahead of subordinated debt. Debentures can be either secured or unsecured.

  • Types of collateral backing include collateral trust bonds, equipment trust certificates, mortgage-backed securities, and covered bonds.

An unsecured bond is not secured by collateral.

Covered bonds are debts issued by banks that are fully collateralized by residential or commercial mortgage loans or by loans to public sector institutions.

Bond Covenants

Affirmative covenants set forth certain actions that borrowers must take, such as:

  • Paying interest and principal on a timely basis
  • Paying taxes and other claims when due
  • Keeping assets in good conditions and in working order
  • Submitting periodic reports to a trustee so that the trustee can evaluate the issuer's compliance with the indenture

Negative covenants set forth certain limitations and restrictions on the borrower's activities, such as:

  • Limitations on the borrower's ability to incur additional debt unless certain tests are met
  • Limitations on dividend payments and stock repurchases
  • Limitations on the sale of assets

User Contributed Comments 9

User Comment
sarath Negative - restrictions on borrowers activities...

affirmative - actions borrowers must take....
manyu brief and to the point
jaimaa good stuff
malikmax really good stuff.
emmaskool This is the best study site I have ever seen.
DariSH Any financial covs?
yesandy11 Affirmative Action is quite easy to remember for some reason...
mhanazi123 It is helpful and easy for memorization
khalifa92 @emmaskool: this site is very simple and user-friendly but in case of informativity the CFA books are still first.
You need to log in first to add your comment.
I am using your study notes and I know of at least 5 other friends of mine who used it and passed the exam last Dec. Keep up your great work!


My Own Flashcard

No flashcard found. Add a private flashcard for the subject.