- CFA Exams
- 2024 Level I
- Topic 7. Fixed Income
- Learning Module 1. Fixed-Income Instrument Features
- Subject 2. Bond Indenture
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Subject 2. Bond Indenture PDF Download
An indenture is the contract between the issuer and the bondholder specifying the issuer's legal requirements. It contains the promises of the issuer and the rights of the holder of the bond.
Bondholders may have great difficulty in ascertaining whether the issuer has been fulfilling its obligations specified in the indenture. The indenture is thus made out to a third-party trustee as a representative of the interests of the bondholders; a trustee acts in a fiduciary capacity for bondholders.
Legal Identity of the Bond Issuer and its Legal Form
The issuer is identified in the indenture by its legal name. It is obligated to make timely payments of interest and repayment of principal. Bonds can be issued by a subsidiary of a parent legal entity. They can also be issued by a holding company. A special-purpose vehicle/entity (a separate legal entity) can issue bonds collateralized by assets transferred from its sponsor. If bankruptcy occurs, the sponsor's creditors cannot go after such assets; this is known as bankruptcy remote.
Source of Repayment Proceeds
The source of repayment proceeds varies, depending on the type of bond.
- Supranational bonds: repayment of previously loans, or the paid-in capital from members
- Sovereign bonds: taxing authority and money creation
- Non-sovereign government bonds: general taxing authority of the issuer, project cash flows, and special taxes
- Corporate bonds: the issuer's operating cash flows
- Securitized bonds: cash flows from the underlying financial assets
Asset or Collateral Backing
Collateral backing can increase a bond issuer's credit quality.
An unsecured bond is not secured by collateral.
Covered bonds are debts issued by banks that are fully collateralized by residential or commercial mortgage loans or by loans to public sector institutions.
Affirmative covenants set forth certain actions that borrowers must take, such as:
- Paying interest and principal on a timely basis
- Paying taxes and other claims when due
- Keeping assets in good conditions and in working order
- Submitting periodic reports to a trustee so that the trustee can evaluate the issuer's compliance with the indenture
Negative covenants set forth certain limitations and restrictions on the borrower's activities, such as:
- Limitations on the borrower's ability to incur additional debt unless certain tests are met
- Limitations on dividend payments and stock repurchases
- Limitations on the sale of assets
User Contributed Comments 9
|sarath||Negative - restrictions on borrowers activities...
affirmative - actions borrowers must take....
|manyu||brief and to the point
|malikmax||really good stuff.|
|emmaskool||This is the best study site I have ever seen.|
|DariSH||Any financial covs?|
|yesandy11||Affirmative Action is quite easy to remember for some reason...|
|mhanazi123||It is helpful and easy for memorization|
|khalifa92||@emmaskool: this site is very simple and user-friendly but in case of informativity the CFA books are still first.|