Why should I choose AnalystNotes?

AnalystNotes specializes in helping candidates pass. Period.

Subject 4. Behavioral Finance PDF Download

Some investors behave highly irrationally and make predictable errors. Behavior finance is a field of finance that proposes psychology-based theories to explain stock market anomalies. Within behavioral finance, it is assumed that the information structure and the characteristics of market participants systematically influence individuals' investment decisions as well as market outcomes. There have been many studies that have documented long-term historical phenomena in securities markets that contradict the efficient market hypothesis and cannot be captured plausibly in models based on perfect investor rationality. Behavioral finance attempts to fill the void.

Loss Aversion

This is a theory that people value gains and losses differently and, as a result, will base decisions on perceived losses rather than perceived gains. Thus, if people were given two equal choices, one expressed in terms of possible losses and the other in possible gains, they would choose the former.


Most people consider themselves to be better than average in most things they do. For example, 80% of drivers contend that they are better than "average" drivers. Is that really possible? Studies show that money managers, advisors, and investors are consistently overconfident in their ability to outperform the market. Most fail to do so, however.

Other behavior theories include representativeness, gambler's fallacy, mental accounting, etc.

Information Cascades

Information cascading is defined as a situation in which an individual imitates the trades of other market participants and completely disregards his or her own private information. A related concept is herding, which is clustered trading that may or may not be based on information. Some researchers argue that institutional investors trade together because they receive correlated private information or infer private information from previous trades, and institutional herding helps prices more quickly reflect market information and improve market efficiency. The result is that trading does not incorporate information and prices can move away from fundamentals.

Some researchers argue that information cascades help promote market efficiency.

User Contributed Comments 7

User Comment
johntan1979 Good example of herding: Toxic CDOs
jonan203 herding = treasuries
ldfrench herding = for sheepdogs
CFAToad Herding = making a comment because others made a comment. ; )
farhan92 wouldn't information cascading violate the code and standards?! diligence and reasonable bias
Kiniry In the words of R.E.M- Everybody Herds
zriddle Herding = The Craft Bee
You need to log in first to add your comment.
I passed! I did not get a chance to tell you before the exam - but your site was excellent. I will definitely take it next year for Level II.
Tamara Schultz

Tamara Schultz

My Own Flashcard

No flashcard found. Add a private flashcard for the subject.