Subject 5. Enterprise Value

Since EBITDA are distributed between all types of investors in a company (common shareholders, preferred shareholders, and creditors), they reflect the fundamental value of the company as a whole. Therefore, a multiple using total company value is logically most appropriate. The EV/EBITDA ratio responds to this need.

Enterprise value (EV) is total company value minus the value of cash and investments.

EV = MV of common stock + MV of preferred stock + MV of debt - cash and investments

EV/EBITDA is an indication of company value, not equity value.

Example

  • Net income: 34.0
  • Interest expense: 7.62
  • Cash outflow for interest payments: 4.0
  • Depreciation and amortization: 17.2
  • Marginal tax rate: 25%
  • Cash and marketable securities: 8.9
  • Investments: 6.2
  • Price per common share on the Paris Stock Exchange: 13.8
  • Total number of shares issued: 20,000,000
  • Total number of shares in treasury stock: 1,320,000

The company's financial statements show that the only interest-paying liability assumed by the company is a 5-year $200MM note maturing in 3 years' time and currently trading at 4.13%. The note is paying semi-annual coupons and all interest payments have been met so far.

The company also has preferred stock that is not trading on any exchange. The book value of the preferred stock is $45. No preferred dividends are currently in arrears.

Solution:

1. Calculation of EBITDA

EBITDA = Net Income + Interest Expense + Depreciation and Amortization + Tax Expense
Tax Expense = (Net Income / (1 - Tax Rate)) - Net Income = [34.0 / (1 - 0.25)] - 34.0 = 11.3
EBITDA = 34.0 + 7.62 + 17.2 + 11.3 = 70.12

2. Calculation of Enterprise Value (EV)

Total market value of common stock = price per share of common stock x number of shares outstanding = Price per share x (shares issued - treasury stock) = 13.8 x (20,000,000 - 1,320,000) = 257.7 MM

Since the company's preferred stock is not publicly traded, we will use its book value for calculation of EV.

Semi-annual coupon on the bond = Cash outflow for interest payments / 2 = 4 / 2 = 2

We know:
the bond's term to maturity = 3 years
Yield to maturity = 4.13%
Semi-annual coupon payments = 2MM
Face Value = 200MM

Therefore, we can calculate the bond's total current market value = $188.1.

EV = Total market value of common stock + Total market value of preferred stock + Total market value of debt - Cash balances - Investments = 257.7 + 45.0 + 188.1 - 8.9 - 6.2 = 475.7.

3. Calculation of EV/EBITDA ratio

EV/EBITDA = 475.7 / 70.12 = 6.78

Advantages:

  • EBITDA is more often positive than net income.
  • By adding back depreciation and amortization, EBITDA does not vary according to the depreciation method used. The EV/EBITDA ratio is often used for valuation of capital-intensive companies.
  • It is more appropriate than P/E for comparing companies with different financial leverage, since EBITDA is not influenced by interest expenses.

Disadvantages:

  • When capital expenditures do not equal depreciation, EBITDA is not a technically correct proxy to cash flow. This qualification to EBITDA comparisons can be meaningful for the capital-intensive businesses to which EV/EBITDA is often applied.
  • EBITDA includes non-cash revenues due to the accrual accounting principle.

User Contributed Comments 11

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RubaHassan: Bond current market price

PMT = 4/2 = 2
i = 4.13/2 = 2.065
n = 3*2 = 6
FV = 200
then PV = 188.1
moneyguy: thank you very much Ruba
gill15: Couple of nice little tricks in there bringing topics together....Getting bond price, figuring out tax expense....
olympria: In calculation of EV, value of equity is taken as total market value but value of preferred is taken as book value per share ($45 - this cant be the total market value right?).

Also, in finding the Present Value of bond, how do they take 2MM as the coupon payment? There is no mention of the coupon payment.
irapp92: @olympria it says it in the example. Cash outflows for interest payments: 4.0. then divide by 2 for semiannual.
Natk: @olympria - they take book value because preferred stock is not traded in this example. It's mentioned in the text.
unknown: What are the steps from 200 to 188.1 and why are they not mentioned, incredibly annoying.
sshetty2: read the comments
: Why calculate tax expense as such ? Shouldn't it be 34m x .25 =8.5 ?
JCarney: Net Income = 34 m
Net Income = EBT - Tax Expense.

So by doing 34m x 0.25 you're deducting tax rate from an amount that has already had tax deducted.
MathLoser: Wow this reading is awesome!