Financial Reporting and Analysis I
Reading 20. Financial Reporting Standards
Learning Outcome Statements
e. describe general requirements for financial statements under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS);
CFA Curriculum, 2020, Volume 3
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Subject 4. General Requirements for Financial Statements
Components of Financial Statements
A complete set of financial statements comprises:
- a balance sheet
- an income statement
- a statement of changes in equity showing either:
- all changes in equity, or
- changes in equity other than those arising from transactions with equity-holders acting in their capacity as equity-holders
- a cash flow statement
- notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies and other explanatory notes
Fundamental Principles Underlying the Preparation of Financial Statements
A company whose financial statements comply with IFRS shall make an explicit and unreserved statement of such compliance in the notes. Financial statements shall not be described as complying with IFRS unless they comply with all the requirements of IFRS.
- Fair presentation. Financial statements shall present fairly the financial position, financial performance, and cash flows of a company. In virtually all circumstances, a fair presentation is achieved by compliance with applicable IFRS.
- Going concern. A business is presumed to be a going concern. If management has significant concerns about the company's ability to continue as a going concern, the uncertainties must be disclosed.
- Accrual basis. IAS No. 1 requires that a company prepare its financial statements, except for cash flow information, using the accrual basis of accounting.
- Consistency. The presentation and classification of items in the financial statements shall be retained from one period to the next unless a change is justified either by a change in circumstances or requirements of new IFRS.
- Materiality and Aggregation. Each material class of similar items must be presented separately in the financial statements. Dissimilar items may be aggregated only if they are individually immaterial.
- No offsetting. Assets and liabilities, and income and expenses, may not be offset unless required or permitted by IFRS.
- Classified balance sheet. A business must normally present a classified balance sheet, separating current and non-current assets and liabilities. Only if a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and more relevant may the current/non-current split be omitted.
- Minimum information on the face of the financial statements. IAS No. 1 specifies the minimum line item disclosures on the face of, or in the notes to, the balance sheet, the income statement, and the statement of changes in equity.
- Minimum information in the notes. IAS No. 1 specifies disclosures about information to be presented in the financial statements.
- Comparative information. Comparative information shall be disclosed in respect of the previous period for all amounts reported in the financial statements, both on the face of financial statements and in notes.
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"Only if a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and more relevant may the current/non-current split be omitted" - I do not fully understand this - isn't the current/non-current presentation the liquidity presentation? May be smth else was meant by this phrase?
My understanding is that unless another more efficient/reliable/consistant method is available you may not omit the Non current/current categories.
Think of it this way - Assets are organized on a balance sheet in order of liquidity. However, that distinction is only needed so users can accurately judge the company's financial position. If a company actually had to be liquidated for any reason, it doesn't matter how liquid the assets are, they are all being sold, and which point there will be no company
@fenix @mdlofmn is saying it correctly-the CA non-CA way is the best way to do it, but if there was another way that the company finds better in presenting liquidity (which I dont think really exists), then they should go for that. @ascruggs92-keep in mind the FI statements should always use the going concern principle, irrespective of liquidation